Saturday, November 17, 2007

More on Tin Glaze

Netherlands: tiles, pottery first made at Antwerp by Italian émigré potters 16th c. --closely related to Italian traditions. Founding of VOC (Dutch East India Company) introduced Chinese porcelain--Dutch compete with Delftware--get boost from collapse of Ming. Potters admitted to Guild of St. Luke on basis of painting skill--often copy engravings, portraits, landscape, figural works, genre--use quality clays, industrial methods to produce quality product. Tiles popular in kitchens on walls (Spanish, Italians had used on floors)--hygienic, easy to clean.
Flower holders specially designed to accommodate tulips--pyramid shape, interlocking parts with water holders, spout-shaped necks for blooms--pyramids symbolized the “glory of the Prince” (in Emblem tradition--Caesare Ripa)--also called to mind Roman/Egyptian obelisks, Chinese pagodas. Most exuberant examples produced by van Eenhorn family with Adrien Kocks--popular for funerals, weddings, all sorts of celebrations, display. First mentioned in household inventories of wealthy between 1654-1668. Popularized with English court with accession to throne of William and Mary (Glorious Revolution, 1688--Mary huge fan of blue and white porcelain, Delftware.)
Tin-glazed earthenwares had been imported into England from the Mediterranean from the 13th century. They were called galleywares, probably because they were imported on ships. In 1567 Jaspar Andries and Jacob Janson (dates unknown) arrived in England from Antwerp, and in 1571 they applied for permission to establish a maiolica pottery in London, and helped to introduce the tin-glaze technique to England. It involved coating fired earthenware with a layer of glaze that was opacified with oxides of tin. The resulting fragile white surface was ideal for decoration with colours that were fired at the same time as the glaze. This style of pottery, which had spread all over Europe from Italy, is now known as delftware. There were three principal centres for the production of delftware in England in the 17th and 18th centuries: London, Bristol and Liverpool. (Gar.)
England: John Stow’s Survey of London 1603 reports religious refugees from Antwerp making Delftware in London--also made floor tiles, “apothecaries” (drug jars, albarellos, mortar and pestles etc.) Tin-glaze produced in Aldgate (East Anglia) and Southwark (London) by Flemish potters early 17th to late 18th c. --hard to tell Dutch and other foreign examples. Lambeth, Bristol other important centres--exported to Indies, Americas. Many potteries small family businesses; produced figures, decorated plates, puzzle jugs, candle holders etc.--tendency to chip limited use--surviving objects usually for display. Eventually replaced by Staffordshire creamwares late in 18th c.

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